Attacks of 11 of September: Manhattan reborn
It was lunch time in Portugal when, all of a sudden, everything changed. The most deadly and – we can tell from this distance – spectacular terrorist attack in living memory struck the heart of the capital of the world. And the city that never sleeps fell into a nightmare that would last for months on end. Past 14 years of attacks 11 September 2001, that claimed the lives of nearly three thousand people, the city is recomposed, but other. The World also. Not much there is to see and do in the most visited US city became compulsory fulfill script 11 of September. Starting with the 'ground zero', the impact zone of the planes against the former World Trade Center. Here the rubble gave way to Memorial 11 of September. Are two square pools with waterfalls occupying the site where the twin towers stood stately and where it dug in stone the names of all the deadly bombing victims. It is hard to imagine that this peaceful place and with a silence broken only by the water fall was the scene of so great tragedy that the world has witnessed in direct television. In this area there is also the Memorial Museum 11 of September, an underground structure that brings together the most complete estate related to the al-Qaeda attack on the United States on its territory and on the lives of men and women who lost their lives in the attacks.
It is the only place in New York who keeps the memories of that horror morning. Close by, No Number 209 the immense Broadway is the Chapel of St. Paul. Although locating the 70 meters from the place where the planes crashed into the towers, the chapel was the only property in the area that remained intact. For many a 'miracle' unexplained, and therefore it became a place of pilgrimage. Inside keep up many memories of that day and the victims remember. As in neighboring Liberty Street, a rua da Ladder 10, the fire station engulfed the wreckage of the towers that killed six firefighters. Today is a tribute wall to the peacekeepers who died in 11 of September. Praise of firefighters If there is New York icons, firefighters are one. After the attacks of 11 September 2001, que Mataram 343 Soldiers gives peace, became even more. In the city where day and night are heard the blaring sirens of trucks with ladders 'Magirus', It is now common to see passers-by to greet the vehicles into overdrive. And on the streets is often watch the expressions of affection for men and women who were, Maybe, the greatest symbol of the attacks.
As in neighboring Liberty Street, a rua da Ladder 10, the fire station engulfed the wreckage of the towers that killed six firefighters. Today is a tribute wall to the peacekeepers who died in 11 of September. Praise of firefighters If there is New York icons, firefighters are one. After the attacks of 11 September 2001, que Mataram 343 Soldiers gives peace, became even more. In the city where day and night are heard the blaring sirens of trucks with ladders 'Magirus', It is now common to see passers-by to greet the vehicles into overdrive. And on the streets is often watch the expressions of affection for men and women who were, Maybe, the greatest symbol of the attacks. Video shows the construction of the memorial 11 September City continues to beat records of visitors is not an exaggeration to say that New York is the city that almost everyone wants to know and this may explain the numbers. In 2015 the city reached a record 55 million visitors from around the world. Is very, but nothing that satisfies those responsible, already announced to want to get further in 2016.
14 years 11 of September: Trip to a very different world 2001
After 11 of September, the world was never the same. The story “reborn in this sad day 2001”, says Bernardo Pires de Lima, in international politics expert.
The states became insurance and “the citizens have waived part of their freedom in favor of strengthening its security”, defends Paulo Gorjão, Director of the Portuguese Institute of International Relations and Security (IPRIS).
Bernardo Pires de Lima calls it “security-drive in our day-to-day and permanent tension with the protection of our freedom and privacy”, stressing the other side of the coin: the excesses committed in the name of fighting terrorism, undertaken by many international intelligence agencies and “ultimately contribute to serious political rifts between allies”.
The world's largest threat began to be called terrorism. And “the challenge of ISIS [Islamic State] here to stay”, underlines Paulo Gorjão, comparing it to a “hydra with seven heads”. First it was al-Qaeda and Bin Laden and now the Islamic State.
Para o director do IPRIS, the most striking of the post-September 11 is the awareness that “after the End of History [de Fukuyama] have been an illusion and forms of violent conflict as an instrument of conflict resolution continue to be a phenomenon of day-to-day with repercussions for the US and Europe”.
Attacks or terrorist attacks 11 September 2001 (sometimes, referred to simply as 11 of September) They were a series of suicide attacks against United States coordinated by the organization Islamic fundamentalist al-Qaeda in 11 September 2001. That morning, nineteen terroristsThey kidnapped four commercial aircraft passenger. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the business complex World Trade Center, in the city of New York, killing everyone on board and many of the people working in buildings. Both buildings collapsed two hours after the impact, destroying nearby buildings and causing several other damages. The third passenger plane crashed into the Pentagon, a sede do United States Department of Defense, in Arlington County, Virginia, around Washington, D.C. The fourth plane crashed in an open field near Shanksville, on Pennsylvania, after some of its passengers and crew have tried to regain control of the aircraft from hijackers, who had redirected toward the US capital. There were no survivors in any of flights.
Nearly three thousand people died during the attacks, including 227 civilians and 19 hijackers on board aircraft. The overwhelming majority of the victims were civilians, including more citizens 70 countries. Furthermore, for at least one death secondary – one person was dropped from the count by a coroner, I would have been killed by a lung disease due to exposure to dust from the collapse of the World Trade Center.
The United States responded to the attacks by launching the War on Terror: country invaded Afghanistan to overthrow Taliban, that harbored the terrorists of al-Qaeda. The United States also approved the USA PATRIOT Act. Many other countries also strengthened their legislation counterterrorism and expanded law enforcement powers. Some Stock exchanges US were closed in the rest of the week following the attack and recorded huge losses to reopen, especially in the airline industry and safe. The disappearance of billions of dollars in destroyed offices caused serious damage to the economy of Lower Manhattan, in New York City.
The damage to the Pentagon was repaired within a year, and the Memorial do Pentágono It was built next to the building. The reconstruction process was initiated in local do World Trade Center. In 2006, a new office tower was completed on site, the World Trade Center 7. A torre One World Trade Center, built on the site, It is one of highest skyscraper of North America, with 541 meters high. Three more buildings are planned to be built on the site of the former Twin Towers, addition to a memorial to the victims of the attacks already completed. The National Memorial Flight 93 It began construction 8 November 2009 and the first phase of construction was completed on the 10th anniversary of the attacks of 11 of September, in 2011.
Another group of kidnappers Flight 77 da American Airlines hit the Pentagon to 9:37. A fourth flight, the Flight 93 da United Airlines, It crashed in a rural area near Shanksville, on Pennsylvania, at 10:03, after passengers had attempted to retake control of the plane from hijackers. It is believed that the ultimate goal would be abductors Capitol (sede do US Congress) ou a White House.
In September 2002, in an interview for the documentary Yosri Fouda, a journalist from Al Jazeera, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, beside Ramzi Binalshibh, He said that the fourth hijacked plane was heading to the US Capitol and not to the White House. They also said that al-Qaeda had originally planned to make the hijacked planes reached nuclear facilities instead of the towers World Trade Center and the Pentagon, but it was decided not to attack nuclear power plants “by ora” because of fears that the attacks could “out of control”.
During the hijacking of planes, the terrorists used White guns to stab and kill the pilots of aircraft, the flight attendants and passengers. Reports made to the phone calls coming of airline indicated that knives were used by hijackers to hurt attendants and, in at least one case, a passenger, for two kidnappings. Some passengers were able to make calls, Using Phone Service cabin and mobile, and provide details, including several of the hijackers who were aboard each plane had used sprays against chemical crew, such as tear gas or Pepper Spray, and that some people aboard had been stabbed.
The Committee 11 of September He established that two of the hijackers had recently purchased the brand multi-function hand tools Leatherman. A stewardess flight 11, a flight passenger 175 and flight passengers 93 They mentioned that the hijackers had bombs, but one of the passengers also mentioned he thought the bombs were fake. No traces of explosives were found at the sites of incidents and the Commission of 11/09 It concluded that the bombs were probably fake.
No Flight 93 da United Airlines the recordings black box They revealed that crew and passengers attempted to seize control of the plane from the hijackers after learning, through phone calls, that other hijacked planes were thrown into buildings that morning. According to the transcript of the flight recordings 93, one of the hijackers gave the order to change the route Airplane, since it had become apparent that they would lose control of the plane for passengers. Soon after the aircraft crashed in a field near Shanksville, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, at 10:03, local time (14:03:11 UTC). Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, or organizing two attacks, He mentioned in an interview 2002 with Yosri Fouda that Flight Target 93 era o US Capitol, which was given the code name “law School”.
Three of the buildings of the World Trade Center Complex collapsed due to structural failure, no dia do ataque. A Tower On (WTC 2) fell at 9:59 a.m., after burning for 56 minutes in a fire caused by the Flight of impact 175 da United Airlines. A Torre Norte (WTC 1) He collapsed to 10:28, after burning for approximately 102 minutes. When the North Tower collapsed, the debris fell near World Trade Center 7 (WTC 7), damaging the building and starting a fire. These fires burned for hours and compromised the structural integrity of the building, taking it to the total collapse 17:21.
The attacks created widespread confusion between the News organizations and the air traffic controllers in the United States. All international civilian air traffic was banned from landing on US soil for three days. Aircraft already in flight were either removed or diverted to airports in Canada or # Mexico. News sources and unconfirmed reports, often contradictory, They were released throughout the day. One of the most prevalent of these reported that a car bomb It would be detonated at the headquarters of State Department two Americas, in Washington, D.C. Shortly after the first disclosure of the incident at the Pentagon, some media also reported briefly that a fire had broken out in National Mall. Another report came out in Associated Press, stating that the Flight 1989 Delta Air Lines had also been kidnapped. This report also proved to be false; it was believed for a moment that also this flight was at risk of abduction, but his command responded to controllers, and landed safely in Cleveland, Ohio.
A total of 2 996 deaths, including 19 kidnappers and 2 977 victims. The victims were distributed as follows: 246 in four planes (where there were no survivors), 2606 in the city of New York and 125 in Pentagon All occurred deaths were of civilians, except for 55 military hit the Pentagon.
In 2007, the medical examiner's office in New York City released the official death toll of 11 of September, adicionando a morte de Felicia Dunn-Jones. Dunn-Jones died after five months 11/09 due to a lung disease that has been linked to exposure to dust during the collapse of the World Trade Center. Heyward Leon, who died of lymphoma in 2008, It was added to the official death toll in 2009.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) estimated that about 17 400 civilians were in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the attacks, while the accounts of the New York Port Authority suggest that 14.154 People were in the Twin Towers to 08h45min. The vast majority of people below the impact zone safely evacuated the buildings, along with 18 people who were in the impact zone in the south tower, and a number of persons who were above the impact zone, apparently, They used the intact staircase in Tower least Sul.Pelo 1.366 people died, for they were on the floor of the North Tower impact or upper floors, and at least 618 na On Tower, where evacuation had begun before the second impact. Like this, of 2 753 killed in WTC, 1 950 the floors were hit by aircraft or above them.
A total of 411 emergency workers who responded to calls for help died trying to rescue people and put out the fires. The Fire Department of New York City (FDNY) has lost 341 firefighters and two Paramedics. The Police Department of the City of New York (NYPD) has lost 23 employees. The Police Department Port Authority has lost 37 official, and 8 EMTs Additional units and paramedics from private emergency services were killed.
A Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., a investment bank nos pisos 101a-105a do World Trade Center 1, has lost 658 employees, much more than any other company. A Marsh Inc., located immediately below Cantor Fitzgerald on floors 93-101 (the flight impact site 11) has lost 355 employees, and 175 officials Aon Corporation were killed.
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